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28 Januari 1945


28 Januari 1945

Januari 1945

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Thomas William Selleck lahir pada 29 Januari 1945, di Detroit, Michigan, bersama keluarganya kemudian pindah ke Los Angeles, California. Seorang atlet perguruan tinggi berbakat yang memperoleh beasiswa bola basket ke University of Southern California, Selleck mendukung dirinya sendiri sebagai model dan memenangkan peran kecil dalam film dan proyek televisi selama tahun 1970-an setelah ia memutuskan untuk mengejar akting. Dia ditampilkan dalam berbagai serial TV yang termasuk Dunia Misteri yang Luas, Marcus Welby, M.D., Yang Muda dan Yang Gelisah, Charlie's Angels dan Taksi.

Selleck menerima terobosan besar ketika dia berperan dalam peran utama serial detektif CBS&aposs Magnum, P.I., di mana ia berperan sebagai detektif swasta yang santai. Acara berperingkat teratas memulai debutnya pada bulan Desember 1980, dan menjadi hit besar, berlangsung selama delapan musim dan menghasilkan Selleck sebuah Emmy dan Golden Globe.


21 April 1945 adalah hari Sabtu. Ini adalah hari ke-111 dalam setahun, dan pada minggu ke-16 dalam setahun (dengan asumsi setiap minggu dimulai pada hari Senin), atau kuartal ke-2 tahun ini. Ada 30 hari di bulan ini. Tahun 1945 bukan tahun kabisat, jadi ada 365 hari di tahun ini. Bentuk pendek untuk tanggal ini yang digunakan di Amerika Serikat adalah 21/4/1945, dan hampir di semua tempat lain di dunia adalah 21/4/1945.

Situs ini menyediakan kalkulator tanggal online untuk membantu Anda menemukan perbedaan jumlah hari antara dua tanggal kalender. Cukup masukkan tanggal mulai dan berakhir untuk menghitung durasi acara apa pun. Anda juga dapat menggunakan alat ini untuk menentukan berapa hari telah berlalu sejak ulang tahun Anda, atau mengukur jumlah waktu hingga tanggal kelahiran bayi Anda. Perhitungannya menggunakan kalender Gregorian, yang dibuat pada tahun 1582 dan kemudian diadopsi pada tahun 1752 oleh Inggris dan bagian timur yang sekarang disebut Amerika Serikat. Untuk hasil terbaik, gunakan tanggal setelah 1752 atau verifikasi data apa pun jika Anda melakukan penelitian silsilah. Kalender sejarah memiliki banyak variasi, termasuk kalender Romawi kuno dan kalender Julian. Tahun kabisat digunakan untuk mencocokkan tahun kalender dengan tahun astronomi. Jika Anda mencoba mencari tahu tanggal yang terjadi dalam X hari dari hari ini, alihkan ke Hari Dari Sekarang kalkulator sebagai gantinya.


28 Januari 1945 - Sejarah

Pagi ini take-off dan pertemuan formasi di 18.000 kaki di atas timur laut Inggris berjalan lancar. Hari itu cerah berkilauan tanpa awan di langit, kami adalah pemandangan yang luar biasa, 36 burung besar, berkilau, perak terbang dengan mulus dalam formasi indah ke matahari pagi. Itu membuat seorang pria bangga menjadi bagian darinya.

Cuaca sangat penting bagi kami, bisa jadi sangat buruk di Kepulauan Inggris sehingga operasi pengeboman bisa dihentikan sepenuhnya. Pada musim gugur dan musim dingin tahun 1942 cuaca sangat buruk sehingga AF ke-8 hanya dapat melakukan delapan serangan.

Sekitar tiga puluh mil sebelah barat Cologne, pada ketinggian 26.500 kaki kami berbelok ke IP (titik awal untuk menjalankan bom), langsung menuju sasaran, pintu bom terbuka dan siap untuk menyerang. Ini selalu merupakan pemandangan yang menakjubkan tetapi menerbangkan bom secara fisik sangat sulit. Pada ketinggian tinggi, pesawat bermuatan berat dengan hambatan tambahan dari pintu ruang bom yang terbuka sangat sulit dikendalikan. Tanpa bantuan daya pada kontrol, saya harus melawan kelenturan dan kurangnya respons pesawat dengan seluruh kekuatan saya.

Meskipun suhu 45 derajat di bawah nol di kabin pilot (kami tidak memiliki pemanas), saya berkeringat karena upaya saya untuk menerbangkan pesawat sehingga saya harus mematikan pemanas pakaian terbang listrik saya, itu adalah pekerjaan fisik paling berat yang pernah saya lakukan. harus dilakukan. Terlepas dari semua ini, saya sadar bahwa ini adalah puncak dari semua pelatihan, latihan, dan pengorganisasian yang telah ditanamkan kepada saya oleh negara saya dan saya hanya ingin melakukannya dengan benar.

Saat kami menyalakan bom, kami dapat melihat area target di depan kami dengan embusan hitam menandai ledakan antipeluru (biasanya peluru antipesawat 88 mm yang meledak pada ketinggian yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya). Tepat sebelum kami menjatuhkan bom kami, saya ingat berpikir,

"Tidak mungkin si penghancur bisa menangkap kita, mereka bisa merindukan kita di depan, di belakang, di kedua sisi, di atas dan di bawah".

Saya juga ingat bahwa bersamaan dengan pemikiran ini ada tiga ledakan peluru tepat di depan hidung pesawat, bukan lima puluh kaki jauhnya. Terbang melalui asap ledakan cangkang memberi seseorang perasaan kecepatan yang sangat kurang dalam penerbangan ketinggian tetapi meskipun itu semua terjadi dengan cepat, saya punya waktu untuk berpikir,

"Mereka menembakkan 88-an ini dengan empat meriam, di mana ledakan keempat itu?"

Tampaknya selamanya sebelum kami lolos dari kebingungan kecil itu. Saya berasumsi saya salah tentang baterai empat senjata karena saya tidak pernah melihat ledakan keempat.

Sekitar saat itu kami menjatuhkan bom kami, menutup pintu bom dan formasi berbelok ke kanan untuk mendapatkan kompas kami menuju kembali ke Inggris. Dengan turunnya bobot bom dan ditutupnya pintu bom pesawat benar-benar terasa lincah, perasaan yang enak untuk menemani pikiran kita,

"Ayo pergi dari sini."

Saya pikir ini adalah pikiran tetapi itu mungkin kata-kata di interkom dari saya atau dari salah satu kru. Bagaimanapun, itu mengartikulasikan pemikiran paling atas di semua pikiran kita. Selama manuver ini, Guy di turret bola bisa melihat bom jatuh dan mengenai target dan dia melaporkan kepada kami bahwa bom kami telah mengenai rel kereta api, target yang dituju. Dia benar-benar melihat sedikit lebih banyak perang daripada yang pernah saya lakukan, seperti halnya anggota kru lainnya yang memiliki waktu untuk melihat-lihat saat terbang ke Jerman dan kembali dari serangan.

Kami tiba di markas kami tanpa insiden lebih lanjut, keluar dari formasi untuk memasuki pola lalu lintas pendaratan dan menurunkan pesawat dengan lembut di landasan yang dipenuhi salju. Ada angin sepoi-sepoi yang bertiup kecil dari kanan dan saat kami kehilangan kecepatan, angin menangkap sirip vertikal dan membelokkan pesawat ke kanan. Untuk memperbaiki ini saya menerapkan rem ke roda kiri, ketika saya melakukan ini saya menemukan hasil ledakan keempat yang hilang, saya tidak punya rem kiri. Saluran hidrolik telah putus.

Saat kami berbelok dari landasan, saya bisa melihat sebuah kapal tanker gas di depan dan di kiri kanan dan dengan beberapa orang duduk di atasnya menyaksikan para pengebom pulang. Untuk menghindari truk saya menginjak rem kanan dan kemudi sekeras yang saya bisa menyebabkan pesawat berbelok ke kanan dengan keras. Saat sayap menyapu kapal tanker itu, saya menyadari bahwa orang-orang yang telah duduk di atas truk sepersekian detik sebelumnya tidak lagi terlihat. Pesawat meluncur melintasi lapangan yang tertutup salju dan akhirnya berhenti di parit. Tidak tahu seberapa parah kebocoran cairan hidrolik yang mudah terbakar, saya membunyikan bel alarm evakuasi yang memperingatkan kru untuk keluar secepat mungkin. Joe kecil sedang duduk di ruang radionya tanpa menyadari apa yang terjadi dan ketika alarm berbunyi, dia terkejut.
"Ada apa?" tanyanya.

"Tidak bisakah Anda mengatakan bahwa Wagner baru saja menjatuhkan pesawatnya ke dalam parit? Cepat keluar dari pesawat", jawab Guy.

Saat orang-orang itu mengevakuasi pesawat, Joe terdengar bergumam,

"Tampak seperti pendaratan normal bagi saya".


Dari "The Youngest Crew" oleh Paul Wagner
Lagumo Press, Cheyenne, WY, 1997, ISBN 1-878117-18-1

Veteran: Paul Wagner
Pilot, Skuadron ke-600
Tanggal Riwayat Pribadi: Juli 2003 Pengiriman Halaman Web. Dikutip dari "The Youngest Crew" oleh Paul Wagner.
Pengarang: Paul Wagner
Dikirim ke Halaman Web ke-398 oleh: Paul Wagner


Divisi Afrika Selatan

pengantar
Tentara Afrika Selatan memiliki kader pra-perang kecil personel reguler, yang diambil hanya dari populasi kulit putih. Dengan pecahnya perang, negara membentuk dua divisi infanteri, yang bertempur di Mesir dan Libya di mana satu ditangkap.

DOKUMEN YANG DAPAT DIUNDUH (pdf)

Divisi infanteri yang tersisa ditarik kembali ke Afrika Selatan setelah pertempuran El Alamein, dan dibubarkan. Sebuah divisi lapis baja baru dibentuk di Afrika Selatan pada 1 Februari 1943, di bawah komando Mayor Jenderal W. H. E. POOLE.
Lihat: Mayor Jenderal-Evered-POOLE (PDF)

Divisi tersebut mengintegrasikan sejumlah besar orang Rhodesian Selatan kulit putih ke dalam unit-unit formasi, dan di Italia mengambil alih komando brigade Pengawal Inggris, Satuan Tugas AS, dan bahkan batalion infanteri India. Ini membuat divisi ini menjadi formasi yang benar-benar internasional, meskipun dipimpin oleh orang Afrika Selatan.

Divisi Tiba di Italia
Divisi Lapis Baja Afrika Selatan ke-6 tiba di Mesir pada tanggal 30 April 1943 untuk pelatihan di bawah komando Pasukan Inggris di Mesir. Divisi ini kemudian berada di bawah komando Korps III di Mesir antara 1 Januari dan 14 Maret 1944. Divisi ini meninggalkan Mesir pada 16 April 1944, dan mendarat di Italia di Taranto pada 21 April. Divisi ini bergabung dengan Korps Kanada I pada tanggal 28 Mei 1944 di muka ke Sungai Tiber. Ia menghabiskan satu hari (6 Juni) di bawah komando Korps XIII, dan kemudian ditarik menjadi 8 Cadangan Angkatan Darat. Pada tanggal 20 Agustus 1944, divisi tersebut bergabung dengan Korps IV AS dalam pertempuran untuk memaksa Garis Trasimene.

Pertempuran Garis Gotik
Pertempuran berikutnya terjadi di Arezzo antara 4 dan 17 Juli, yang berlanjut ke Florensia. Antara 7 dan 31 Oktober, divisi tersebut diserahkan kepada komando 5 Angkatan Darat AS, sebelum kembali ke Korps IV AS. Ini berpartisipasi dalam enam pertempuran dalam upaya untuk memecahkan Garis Gotik, dari akhir Agustus hingga September 1944. Setelah jeda dalam operasi untuk musim dingin, divisi tersebut dipindahkan ke Korps AS II pada 15 Januari 1945 untuk serangan terakhir.

Akhir Kampanye
Menjelang tahap akhir kampanye, divisi tersebut mulai menderita kekurangan bala bantuan yang parah. Ini karena perang telah menguras sebagian besar populasi pria dewasa kulit putih yang memenuhi syarat yang siap, dan mampu, untuk bertugas di luar negeri di Angkatan Darat. Divisi meninggalkan Italia pada Mei 1945 untuk kembali ke Afrika Selatan.


Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) Bagan Sejarah: 1 Oktober 1928 Hingga 4 Juni 2021


Tonggak untuk The
Rata-rata Industri Dow Jones:

DJIA Menutup Di Atas 1.000 Mark: 14 November 1972 ( 1.003.16 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas 2.000 Mark: 8 Januari 1987 ( 2.002.25 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas 3.000 Mark: 17 April 1991 ( 3.004.46 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas 4,000 Mark: 23 Februari 1995 ( 4.003.33 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas Angka 5.000: 21 November 1995 ( 5.023.55 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas Angka 6.000: 14 Oktober 1996 ( 6.010.00 )

DJIACTutup Di Atas Angka 7.000: 13 Februari 1997 ( 7.022,44 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas Angka 8.000: 16 Juli 1997 ( 8.038.88 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas 9.000 Mark: 6 Mei 1998 ( 9.033,23 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas Angka 10.000: 29 Maret 1999 ( 10.006.78 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 11.000: 3 Mei 1999 ( 11.014.69 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 12.000: 19 Oktober 2006 (12.011.73 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 13.000: 25 April 2007 ( 13,089.89 )

DJIA Menutup Di Atas 14.000 Mark: 19 Juli 2007 ( 14,000.41 )

DJIA 2009 Bear-Market Low: 9 Maret 2009 ( 6,507.04 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 15.000: 7 Mei 2013 ( 15,056.20)

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 16.000: 21 November 2013 ( 16,009.99)

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 17.000: 3 Juli 2014 ( 17,068.26)

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 18.000: 23 Desember 2014 ( 18,024.17)

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 19.000: 22 November 2016 ( 19,023.87)

DJIA Tutup Di Atas Angka 20.000: 25 Januari 2017 ( 20,068.51)

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 21.000: 1 Maret 2017 ( 21,115.55 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 22.000: 2 Agustus 2017 ( 22,016.04 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 23.000: 18 Oktober 2017 ( 23,157.60 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 24.000: 30 November 2017 ( 24,272.35 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 25.000: 4 Januari 2018 ( 25,075.13 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 26.000: 17 Januari 2018 ( 26,115.65 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 27.000: 11 Juli 2019 ( 27,088.08 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 28.000: 15 November 2019 ( 28,004.89 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 29.000: 15 Januari 2020 ( 29,030.22 )

DJIA Tutup Di Atas 30.000: 24 November 2020 ( 30,046.24 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas Angka 31.000: 7 Januari 2021 ( 31,041.13 )

DJIA Tutup Di Atas 31.300 Mark: 8 Februari 2021 ( 31,385.76 )

DJIA Tutup Di Atas 31.400 Mark: 10 Februari 2021 ( 31,437.80 )

DJIA Tutup Di Atas Angka 31.500: 16 Februari 2021 ( 31,522.75 )

DJIA Tutup Di Atas Angka 31.600: 17 Februari 2021 ( 31,613.02 )

DJIA Tutup Di Atas Angka 31.900: 24 Februari 2021 ( 31,961.86 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas 33.000 Mark: 17 Mar 2021 ( 33,015.37 )

DJIA Ditutup Di Atas 34.000 Mark: 15 April 2021 ( 34,035.99 )

DJIA Sepanjang Masa, Rekor Tertinggi Penutupan: 7 Mei 2021 ( 34,777.76 )

Situs web ini tidak berafiliasi atau terkait dengan Federal Reserve Amerika Serikat dengan cara apa pun.
Informasi dalam situs web ini disediakan untuk tujuan pendidikan saja. Pemilik situs web ini
tidak memberikan jaminan sehubungan dengan setiap dan semua konten yang terkandung dalam situs web ini. Konsultasikan
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produk, termasuk, namun tidak terbatas pada, pinjaman usaha, pinjaman pribadi, pinjaman pendidikan, pertama
atau hipotek kedua, kartu kredit, pinjaman mobil atau jenis asuransi apa pun.


1950 s

1950 - 10 Mei: Setelah tiga tahun berdebat lagi, Kongres meloloskan dan Presiden Harry S. Truman menandatangani Hukum Publik 81-507, mendirikan National Science Foundation. Undang-undang tersebut menetapkan Dewan Sains Nasional (NSB) yang terdiri dari 24 anggota paruh waktu dan seorang direktur sebagai chief executive officer, semuanya ditunjuk oleh presiden. Pertemuan NSB pertama diadakan pada 12 Desember.

Anggota Dewan Sains Nasional, Juli 1951 (Kiri ke kanan):
Baris pertama: Dr. John W. Davis, Dr. Sophie B. Aberle, Dr. Detlev W. Bronk, Dr. James B. Conant, Dr. Alan T. Waterman, Dr. Gerty T. Cori, Pendeta Patrick H. Yancey
Baris Berdiri: Dr. Marston Morse, Dr. E.C. Stakman, Dr. Chester I. Barnard, Dr. Paul M. Gross, Dr. Frederick A. Middlebush, Dr. Joseph C. Morris, Dr. James A. Reyniers, Dr. O.W. Hyman, Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Dr. Robert F. Loeb, Dr. Robert P. Barnes, Dr. George D. Humphrey, Dr. A.A. Potter, Tuan Charles Dollard.

Kredit: Koleksi NSF. Unduh gambar versi JPG resolusi tinggi. (1,38 MB)

1951 - Maret: Alan T. Waterman, kepala ilmuwan di Office of Naval Research, dinominasikan oleh Presiden Truman untuk menjadi direktur pertama NSF. (Biografi Waterman) Dia diberi alokasi awal $225.000.

1952 - 1 Februari: Dewan Sains Nasional menyetujui 28 hibah penelitian pertama yang diberikan oleh NSF. Hibah pertama, sebesar $10.300, diberikan kepada Institute for Cancer Research. Sebanyak 97 hibah penelitian diberikan pada tahun pertama. Di antara penerimanya adalah Max Delbruck (Hadiah Nobel, 1969).

1952 - April: Beasiswa predoctoral dan postdoctoral pertama diberikan. Di antara penerimanya adalah sosiobiologis Edward O. Wilson (Hadiah Pulitzer, 1979 dan 1991) dan fisikawan Burton Richter (Hadiah Nobel, 1976). (Kelas Yayasan Sains Nasional tahun 1952)

1953 - Mei: NSF ikut mensponsori konferensi tentang penguatan pengajaran fisika perguruan tinggi di tingkat sarjana. NSF didorong untuk memperluas peluang penelitian untuk fakultas perguruan tinggi dan untuk mendorong penelitian sarjana, yang akan dilakukan di tahun-tahun berikutnya.

1954 - Juli-Agustus: Program musim panas eksperimental untuk guru matematika sekolah menengah diadakan di Seattle, Wash. Ini menandai awal dari dukungan berkelanjutan NSF terhadap kegiatan pendidikan yang ditujukan untuk taman kanak-kanak hingga komunitas pengajaran sekolah menengah.

1955: NSF menerima alokasi pertama untuk dukungan Tahun Geofisika Internasional (IGY). Atas permintaan Dewan Riset Nasional, NSF bertanggung jawab untuk memperoleh dan mengelola dana pemerintah untuk partisipasi Amerika dalam program penelitian ilmiah di seluruh dunia. (Ilmu Perang Dingin: Warisan Tahun Geofisika Internasional -- tidak tersedia online)

Hibah perencanaan pertama diberikan untuk pendirian radio nasional dan observatorium astronomi optik.

1956: Konstruksi dimulai di Observatorium Astronomi Radio Nasional di Green Bank, W.Va. Observatorium akan selesai pada tahun 1962.

Teleskop radio transit 300 kaki di National Radio Astronomy Observatory di Green Bank, W.Va. Selesai pada September 1962, itu adalah teleskop radio bergerak terbesar di dunia pada waktu itu.

Kredit: Koleksi NSF. Unduh gambar versi JPG resolusi tinggi. (188KB)

Hibah NSF pertama diberikan untuk mendukung pusat komputasi dan penelitian dalam analisis numerik. Tiga tahun kemudian, anggaran terpisah dibuat untuk hibah yang memungkinkan institusi akademik memperoleh peralatan komputer utama.

1957 - 22 Januari: Stasiun Kutub Selatan secara resmi didedikasikan. Amerika Serikat memiliki enam stasiun ilmiah yang didirikan di Antartika, dengan dana yang dipasok oleh NSF.

1957 - 1 Juli: IGY resmi dimulai.

1957 - 1 Agustus: Program Penelitian Ilmu Sosial didirikan. NSF mendukung antropologi, ekonomi, sosiologi, dan sejarah dan filsafat ilmu.

1957 - 4 Oktober: Uni Soviet meluncurkan Sputnik I, satelit buatan manusia pertama, ke orbit. Hal ini memicu penilaian diri nasional atas penelitian dan pendidikan ilmiah di Amerika Serikat. Kongres menanggapi dengan lebih dari dua kali lipat alokasi NSF menjadi $ 134 juta untuk dua belas bulan mulai 1 Juli 1958. Pendanaan untuk pendidikan lebih dari tiga kali lipat.

1958 - 11 Juli: NSF diberi tanggung jawab untuk membuat program penelitian untuk modifikasi cuaca.

1958 - 4 Agustus: Program Penelitian Antartika Amerika Serikat (USAP) didirikan di NSF, dengan tanggung jawab untuk mengoordinasikan dan mengelola program ilmiah Amerika di Antartika.

1958 - 31 Desember: IGY resmi berakhir.

1959 - 13 Maret: Presiden Dwight D. Eisenhower menandatangani Perintah Eksekutif 10807, memberikan NSF tanggung jawab yang sangat besar untuk membuat informasi ilmiah lebih mudah tersedia bagi para ilmuwan. Kantor Informasi Ilmu Pengetahuan NSF didirikan untuk melaksanakan tugas-tugas baru tersebut.

1959 - 25 Agustus: Presiden Eisenhower menandatangani Hukum Publik 86-209, menetapkan National Medal of Science.


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Minggu ini dalam rangka memperingati Hari Pahlawan, setiap hari kami akan membagikan postingan tentang popularitas penamaan nama tokoh penting dalam sejarah. Kami telah mencoba untuk tetap sedekat mungkin dengan Marrowbone Creek dengan memasukkan nama-nama yang kami rasa diberikan untuk masing-masing orang hebat ini. Kami harap Anda menikmati!

Hari ke-3:
Presiden ke-19: RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES, Partai: Partai Republik melawan Demokrat Samuel Jones Tilden. Melayani: 1877 – 1881
Lahir: 4 Oktober 1822 di Delaware, Ohio dari pasangan Rutherford Hayes, Jr. dan Sophia Birchard.
Hayes bertugas di Union Army dan House of Representatives sebelum menjadi presiden. Sejarawan menganggap kepresidenannya sebagai akhir formal Rekonstruksi, saat ia mengakhiri upaya federal untuk membawa kesetaraan rasial ke Selatan.
Meninggal: 17 Januari 1893 di Fremont, Ohio.

Mereka yang dinamai RUTHERFORD B. HAYES:
• Rutherford B. Pharoah Hayes Pack, b. 2 Maret 1877 Wayne Co, WV. Putra Anderson Pack dan Caroline Bartram.
• Rutherford B. “Hayes” Smith, b. 7 Februari 1874 Floyd Co, KY. Menikah dengan Ann Aldridge Paskah. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Brewer-Fitzpatrick, Marrowbone Creek.

Presiden ke-20: JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD, Partai: Republik. Dilayani: Mar 1881 – September 1881**Dibunuh
Lahir: 19 November 1831 di Moreland Hills, Ohio dari pasangan Abram Garfield dan Eliza
Garfield menentang pemisahan diri Konfederasi, menjabat sebagai jenderal utama di Angkatan Darat Union selama Perang Saudara Amerika, dan bertempur dalam pertempuran Middle Creek, Shiloh, dan Chickamauga.
Pada tanggal 2 Juli 1881, Charles J. Guiteau, seorang pencari kantor yang kecewa dan delusi, menembak Garfield di Stasiun Kereta Api Baltimore dan Potomac di Washington DC. Lukanya tidak langsung fatal, tetapi ia meninggal pada 19 September 1881, karena infeksi yang disebabkan oleh dokternya. Guiteau dieksekusi karena pembunuhan Garfield pada Juni 1882.
Meninggal: 19 September 1881 di Elberon, N.J.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk JAMES A. GARFIELD:
• James Abram Hensley, b. 12 September 1880 Oppy, Martin Co, KY. Menikahi Marinda Stepp.
• Garfield Cassady, b. 5 Maret 1881, Inez, KY. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Cassady, Inez, KY
• Garfield Johnson, b. 1881 KY. Putra Bill dan Rebecca Johnson.
• Pabrik Garfield, b. 1881, KY. Putra John Mills dan Elizabeth Jarrell
• Garfield Young, b. 1881 Martin Co, KY. Menikah dengan Edna Evans, putri William Anderson Evans (Dimakamkan: Evans Cemetery, Vinson Branch, Marrowbone) dan Elizabeth Ferrell.

Presiden ke-21: CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR, Partai: Republik. Melayani: 1881 – 1885
Lahir: 5 Oktober 1829 di Fairmont, Vermont dari pasangan William Arthur dan Malvina Stone. Dia berhasil menjadi presiden setelah kematian Presiden James A. Garfield pada bulan September 1881, dua bulan setelah Garfield ditembak oleh seorang pembunuh.
Wartawan Alexander McClure menulis, "Tidak ada orang yang pernah memasuki kursi kepresidenan dengan begitu dalam dan sangat tidak dipercaya seperti Chester Alan Arthur, dan tidak ada yang pernah pensiun. lebih dihormati secara umum, sama-sama oleh kawan dan lawan politik."
Meninggal: 18 November 1886 di New York City, N.Y.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR:
• Chester Arthur Marcum, b. 28 November 1892 Lawrence Co, KY. Suami dari Rebecca Varney. Rebecca adalah saudara perempuan dari Lena Varney, istri ke-2 Lafayette Herald, dan Tennie Varney, istri ke-2 Pyrrhus “Bingham” Meade.

Presiden ke-22: GROVER CLEVELAND, Partai: Demokrat Menjabat: 1885 – 1889
Lahir: 18 Maret 1837 di Caldwell, NJ dari pasangan Richard Falley Cleveland dan Ann Neal Selama Perang Saudara ia direkrut tetapi menyewa pengganti sehingga ia dapat merawat ibunya (ayahnya meninggal pada tahun 1853)—prosedur yang sepenuhnya legal tetapi salah satu yang akan membuatnya rentan terhadap serangan politik di masa depan.
Meninggal: 24 Juni 1908 Princeton, N.J.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk GROVER CLEVELAND:
• Grover Cleveland Brewer, b. 25 Sep 1894 Mingo Co, WV. Dikuburkan: Pemakaman Grover Cleveland Brewer, garpu kiri Marrowbone Creek.
• Grover Cleveland Gillman, b. 18 Sep 1892 Kermit, Mingo Co, WV. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Perry Point.
• Kakek saya, Grover Cleveland Marcum, b. 17 Mei 1888 Bullcreek/Dicy, Wayne Co, WV. Kakek saya adalah seorang Republikan, dan tidak suka disebut sebagai seorang Demokrat, tetapi ini mungkin perbuatan ibunya, Mahala. Bagaimanapun, dia tidak pernah menginginkan anak laki-laki dinamai untuknya, tetapi pada anak terakhir mereka, ayah saya menjadi Grover Cleveland Jr.
• Grover Cleveland Meade, b. 1886- putra Lewis Meade dan Evaline Spaulding
• Grover Cleveland Richmond, b. 6 November 1892 Martin Co, KY. Pendiri toko Richmond Grocery, dan pemilik Teater Utama di Kermit. Dimakamkan: Martin Co, KY.
• Peterseli Cleveland Grover, b. 1885. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Celah Rendah, Crum
• Peterseli Cleveland Grover, b. 1899. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Williamson, Jennies Creek

Presiden ke-23: BENJAMIN HARRISON, Partai: Republik Menjabat: 1889 – 1893.
Lahir: 20 Agustus 1833 di North Bend, Ohio dari pasangan John Scott Harrison dan Elizabeth Irwin dan cucu dari Presiden ke-9, William H. Harrison 1881 = Harrison terpilih menjadi Senat AS. Dia adalah Jenderal Perang Saudara terakhir yang menjabat sebagai Presiden.
Selama Perang Saudara Amerika, ia bertugas di Union Army sebagai kolonel, dan dikukuhkan oleh Senat AS sebagai brevet brigadir jenderal sukarelawan pada tahun 1865. Harrison gagal mencalonkan diri sebagai gubernur Indiana pada tahun 1876. Majelis Umum Indiana memilih Harrison untuk masa jabatan enam tahun di Senat AS, di mana ia menjabat dari tahun 1881 hingga 1887.
Meninggal: 13 Maret 1901 di Indianapolis, Indiana.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk BENJAMIN HARRISON:
• Benjamin Harrison Fitzpatrick, b. 13 Maret 1870 Wayne Co, WV. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Stepp, Stepptown
• Benjamin Harrison Dingess, b. 10 Mei 1884 WV. Menikah dengan Fannie Lee Kirk. Pemakaman Murphy yang terkubur.
• Salmon Benjamin Harrison "Bennie", b. 6 Juli 1894 Crum, Wayne Co, WV. Pemakaman Perry Point yang terkubur.

Presiden ke-24: GROVER CLEVELAND, Partai: Demokrat Menjabat: 1893 – 1897
Dia juga presiden ke-22 dan satu-satunya presiden yang pernah menjabat dua periode yang terputus-putus.
(Lihat entri sebelumnya untuk infonya)

Presiden ke-25: WILLIAM McKINLEY, Partai: Republik. Dilayani: 1897 – 1901**Dibunuh
Lahir: 29 Januari 1843 di Niles, Ohio dari pasangan William McKinley Sr. dan Nancy Allison.
McKinley adalah presiden selama Perang Spanyol-Amerika tahun 1898, menaikkan tarif protektif untuk meningkatkan industri Amerika, dan menolak kebijakan moneter ekspansif perak gratis, menjaga bangsa pada standar emas. Dengan bantuan penasihat dekatnya MARK HANNA, ia mendapatkan nominasi Partai Republik untuk presiden pada tahun 1896 di tengah depresi ekonomi yang mendalam. Dia mengalahkan saingan Demokratnya WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN setelah kampanye teras depan di mana dia menganjurkan "uang yang sehat" (standar emas kecuali diubah oleh perjanjian internasional) dan berjanji bahwa tarif tinggi akan memulihkan kemakmuran.
Meninggal: 14 Sep 1901 di Buffalo, NY Setelah pembunuhannya, wakil presidennya, Theodore Roosevelt mengambil alih jabatan.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk WILLIAM McKINLEY:
• William McKinley Kirk, b. 29 Oktober 1896 Inez, Martin Co, KY. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Murphy, Kermit Timur.
• McKinley Lowe, b. 1897 Wayne Co, WV. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Perry Point, Sungai Jennie
• William McKinley Marcum, b. 2 April 1928 Wayne Co, WV. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Anderson Marcum, Bullcreek
• McKinley Muncy Sr., b. 20 Oktober 1896 WV. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Muncy, Elang Abu-abu

Nama-nama dari WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN:
• William Jennings Brewer, b. 1903 kepada Anthony Wayne Brewer dan Sarah Ann Ferrell. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman A.W. Brewer, Cabang Antney, Marrowbone Creek.
• William Jennings Brewer, b. 1 Juli 1908 WV. Putra Mitchell Brewer dan Lydia Aldridge.
• William Jennings Bryant Marcum, b. 20 Juni 1909 Crum, Wayne Co, WV. Suami dari Bertha Easter Cox.

Presiden ke-26: THEODORE ROOSEVELT, Partai: Republik Menjabat: 1901 – 1909
A.K.A. Teddy atau T.R. Lahir: 27 Oktober 1858 New York, NY dari Theodore Roosevelt Sr. dan Martha Bulloch
Pada tahun 1880 ia menikah dengan Alice Hathaway Lee, dengan siapa ia memiliki satu putri, Alice. Setelah kematian istri pertamanya, pada tahun 1886 ia menikah dengan Edith Kermit Carow, dengan siapa ia tinggal selama sisa hidupnya di Sagamore Hill, sebuah perkebunan dekat Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York. Mereka memiliki lima anak: Theodore, Jr., Kermit, Ethel, Archibald, dan Quentin.
Dia mengganti nama rumah eksekutif Gedung Putih pada tahun 1901.
Dia memenangkan Hadiah Nobel untuk Perdamaian pada tahun 1906 untuk menengahi berakhirnya Perang Rusia-Jepang (1904–05), dan dia mengamankan rute dan memulai pembangunan Terusan Panama (1904–14).
Meninggal: 6 Januari 1919 di Oyster Bay, N.Y.

Nama-nama untuk THEODORE ROOSEVELT:
• Roosevelt Messer, b. 1903. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Anderson
• Roosevelt Baru, b. 1922

Presiden ke-27: WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, Partai: Republik. Melayani: 1909 – 1913
Lahir: 15 Sep 1857 di Cincinnatti, Ohio dari pasangan Alphonso Taft dan Louise Torrey. Dengan bantuan Roosevelt, Taft memiliki sedikit oposisi untuk nominasi Partai Republik untuk presiden pada tahun 1908 dan dengan mudah mengalahkan William Jennings Bryan untuk kursi kepresidenan dalam pemilihan November itu. Di Gedung Putih, ia lebih fokus pada Asia Timur daripada urusan Eropa dan berulang kali campur tangan untuk menopang atau menyingkirkan pemerintah Amerika Latin.
Pada tahun 1921, Presiden Warren G. Harding mengangkat Taft menjadi hakim agung, posisi yang dipegangnya sampai sebulan sebelum kematiannya.
Meninggal: 8 Maret 1930 di Washington, D.C.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT:
• William Taft “Bill” Kress, b. 15 Agustus 1908 di Chilhowie, Smyth Co, VA.
• William Taft Spaulding, b. 1908 WV. Putra John R. Spaulding dan Pricy Jude.

Presiden ke-28: THOMAS WOODROW WILSON, Partai: Demokrat. Melayani: 1913 – 1921
Lahir: 28 Desember 1856 di Staunton, Virginia dari pasangan Joseph Ruggles Wilson dan Jessie Janet Woodrow.
Sebagai Presiden, Wilson mengubah kebijakan ekonomi negara dan memimpin Amerika Serikat ke dalam Perang Dunia I pada tahun 1917. Dia adalah arsitek terkemuka Liga Bangsa-Bangsa, dan sikap progresifnya terhadap kebijakan luar negeri kemudian dikenal sebagai Wilsonianisme.
Prioritas utama pertamanya adalah Undang-Undang Pendapatan tahun 1913, yang menurunkan tarif dan memulai pajak penghasilan modern.
Meninggal: 3 Februari 1924 di Washington, D.C.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk WOODROW WILSON:
• Woodrow Wilson Maynard, b. 1922, putra Ira Maynard dan Jettie Hensley. Dikuburkan: Ridge Baru.
• Puncak Woodrow Wilson, b. 1915 WV. Putra Calvin Arthur Peake dan Hazel Stepp
• Woodrow Wilson Stepp, b. 19 Maret 1922 Mingo Co, WV. Meninggal tahun 1975 di rumahnya di Kermit.

Presiden ke-29: WARREN GAMELIEL HARDING, Partai: Republik. Menjabat: 1921 – 1923*Meninggal di Kantor
A.K.A. "Winni". Lahir: 2 November 1865 di Blooming Grove, Ohio dari pasangan George Tryon Harding dan Phoebe Elizabeth Dickerson.
Dia menang telak atas Demokrat James M. Cox dan memenjarakan kandidat Partai Sosialis Eugene Debs, untuk menjadi senator pertama yang terpilih sebagai Presiden.
Meninggal: 2 Agustus 1923 di San Francisco, California. Harding meninggal karena serangan jantung di San Francisco saat melakukan tur barat, dan digantikan oleh Wakil Presiden Calvin Coolidge. Anggota kabinetnya Albert B. Fall (Sekretaris Dalam Negeri) dan Harry Daugherty (Jaksa Agung) masing-masing kemudian diadili karena korupsi di kantor. Fall dihukum meskipun Daugherty tidak. Skandal-skandal ini dan lainnya sangat merusak reputasi anumerta Harding, dia umumnya dianggap sebagai salah satu presiden terburuk dalam sejarah AS.

Nama-nama untuk WARREN G. HARDING:
• Warren Harding Marcum, b. 30 Oktober 1930 di Pike Co, KY. Pemakaman Anderson yang Terkubur, Sungai Jennie
• Warren Harden Marcum, b. 1 November 1959 Maryland. Dinamakan untuk Pamannya di atas.

Presiden ke-30: CALVIN COOLIDGE, Partai: Republik. Melayani: 1923 – 1929
A.K.A. John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. Lahir: 4 Juli 1872 di Plymouth Notch, Vermont dari pasangan John Calvin Coolidge Sr. dan Victoria Josephine Moor.
Meskipun dinamai untuk ayahnya, John, sejak kecil Coolidge dipanggil dengan nama tengahnya, Calvin. Nama tengahnya dipilih untuk menghormati John Calvin, yang dianggap sebagai pendiri gereja Kongregasi tempat Coolidge dibesarkan dan tetap aktif sepanjang hidupnya.
Seorang pengacara Republik dari New England, lahir di Vermont, Coolidge menapaki tangga politik negara bagian Massachusetts, akhirnya menjadi gubernur Massachusetts. Tanggapannya terhadap Pemogokan Polisi Boston tahun 1919 mendorongnya menjadi sorotan nasional dan memberinya reputasi sebagai orang yang mengambil tindakan tegas. Tahun berikutnya, dia terpilih sebagai wakil presiden Amerika Serikat ke-29, dan dia menggantikannya sebagai presiden setelah kematian mendadak Warren G. Harding pada tahun 1923. Terpilih atas haknya sendiri pada tahun 1924, dia mendapatkan reputasi sebagai orang kecil. konservatif pemerintah dan juga sebagai orang yang sangat sedikit bicara dan memiliki selera humor yang agak kering.
Meninggal: 5 Januari 1933 di Northampton, Massachusetts.

Mereka yang diberi nama untuk CALVIN COOLIDGE:
• Calvin Coolidge Cassady, b. 1 September 1924 Mingo Co, WV. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Murphy, Kermit Timur.
• Calvin Coolidge Copley, b. ?, putra Monroe Copley dan Luetisha Messer
• Coolidge Muncy, b. 18 Februari 1932. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Jacob Messer, Jennie's Creek.
• Calvin Coolidge Dillon, b. 1924. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Baisden-Ferguson, Sungai Jennie
• Coolidge Dillon- anak dari Any Dillon dan Spicie Belle Spaulding. Dimakamkan: Pemakaman Wash Dillon, Jennies Creek

Those named for JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564):
• John Calvin Brewer Sr., b. 1831 VA. Son of Isaac Brewer & Elizabeth Meade. Buried Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone.
• John Calvin Chaffins, b. March 12, 1881 Logan Co, WV. Buried possibly at Dearnell Cemetery, Stonecoal.

31st President: HERBERT CLARK HOOVER, Party: Republican. Served: 1929 – 1933
Born: Aug 10, 1874 in West Branch, Iowa to Jesse Hoover and Hulda Randall Minthorn.
When the U.S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, and Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". He was influential in the development of air travel and radio. He led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, and decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith. The stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, and the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency.
Died: Oct 20, 1964 New York, N.Y.

Those named for HERBERT CLARK HOOVER:
• Cleo Hoover Maynard, b. May 30, 1927 WV. Buried: Newsome Ridge Cemetery.

32nd President: FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT, Party: Democrat Served: 1933 – 1945*Died in Office.
A.K.A. FDR. Born: Jan 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, N.Y. to James and Sara Delano Roosevelt. He served the longest of any president, 12 years before dying in office. The only president elected to the office four times, Roosevelt led the United States through two of the greatest crises of the 20th century: the Great Depression and World War II. He was also the first president to appear on television in 1939.
Died: April 12, 1945 in Warm Springs, Georgia.

Those named for FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT:
• Forrest Roosevelt Evans, b. 1933, d. 2016

Marrowbone & Jennies Creek, Kermit, WV Cemeteries & History

Dandridge residence in Kermit damaged by fire Williamson Daily News 12 Jul 1961

Marrowbone & Jennies Creek, Kermit, WV Cemeteries & History

Mingo Street during the flood of April 1977, looking towards Meade Street. The white building on the left was storage for Richmond-Akers Hardware Co., then the Kermit Cash Store owned by George Dewey and Callie (Harmon) Preece and the Liquor Store with an advertisement for Black Draught laxative painted on the side.

Today, the lots where the Richmond-Akers Hardware storage building, Kermit Cash Store and the Liquor Store once stood are vacant. The telephone company building currently still stands on the opposite side of Meade Street.

Photo courtesy of Susan Ryan. The recreated picture was taken in March 2021.

You can read more about the history of the Kermit Cash Store, and George and Callie here: https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=323829308278598&id=107115773283287

Marrowbone & Jennies Creek, Kermit, WV Cemeteries & History

This week in honor of Memorial Day, each day we will be sharing a post about the popularity of naming after key figures in history. This is our last day.

This entry came to me as one I should also include as many of our God fearing family named their children after the bible. I was named for my grandmother, Rhoda (Salmons) Marcum Dotson, and there are upteen Rhoda's in this area . . . but it originated from the Bible.

Day 4:
Those named for ADAM:
• Adam Crum, b. 1756 Augusta Co, VA. The first to bring in the Crum name to this part of WV.
• Adam Gayheart, b. 1925 Logan Co, WV. Married Rebecca Damron. Buried: Vinson Cemetery, Vinson Branch, Marrowbone Creek

Those named for AARON:
• Adam Brewer, b. 1834 Logan Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone
• Aaron Fain, b. 1873 Crum, Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone
• Aaron Fluty, b. 1826 Lawrence Co, KY. Brother to Mahala Fluty that married Joshua Marcum. Mahala and Joshua Marcum are buried at top of Williamson Cemetery, mouth of Mudlick, Jennie’s Creek
• Aaron Hensley, b. 1829 VA. Married Martha “Patsy” Ball. Lived at Long Branch, Martin Co, KY
• Aaron Marcum, b. 1849 Wayne Co, WV. Son of Joshua and Mahala Fluty Marcum.
• Aaron Stepp, b. 1827 Pike Co, KY. Whose son’s, Laban T. Stepp, daughters are buried at the Brewer Cemetery, mouth of Marrowbone Creek.
• Aaron Henry Cornes, b. 1864 Clay Co, WV. Buried: Herald-Corns Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek

Those named for DAVID:
• David C. Brewer, b. 1860 Logan Co, VA. Buried: Dave Brewer Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• David Crum, b. 1807. Son of Adam Crum and Barbara Horn.
• David Hodge, b. 1857 VA. Son of John Hodge and Fidelia Clark.
• David May, b. abt 1859 Pike Co, KY. Married Causby Dempsey.
• David Sartin, b. 1904 Kermit. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone Creek
• Captain David Wilkinson, b. 1837 Wythe Co, VA. Married Rebecca Chafin, daughter of William Chafin Sr. and Sarah Deskins. Rebecca is buried Vinson Cemetery, Vinson Branch, Marrowbone Creek.

Those named for GIDEON:
• Gideon Parsley Sr., b. 1877 WV. Buried: Williamson Cemetery, mouth of Mudlick, Jennie’s Creek
• Gideon D. Bailey, b. 1885 WV. Son of James D. Bailey and Malinda Marcum.
• Gideon D. Hampton, b. 1844. Son of Henry Cary Hampton Jr. and Alafair Watts.
• Gideon D. Marcum, b. 1890 Wayne Co, WV. Son of General Lee Marcum who is buried at Williamson Cemetery, mouth of Mudlick, Jennie’s Creek.
• Gideon D. Messer, b. 1870 Logan Co, WV. Married Martha Ann Block. Both buried at Marcum-Johnson Cemetery, Cotton Hill, Wayne Co, WV
• Gideon Dee Marcum, b. 1825, KY. Married Jane Hampton. Son of Moses Marcum and Eda Bryant.

Those named for ISAAC:
• Isaac Brewer Sr., b. 1789 VA. Married Elizabeth Meade. Early settler of Marrowbone Creek, having owned land here before 1839
• Isaac Collins, brother of Susanna Collins, first wife of Moses D. Marcum. They divorced and Moses later married Margaret Lucy Justice.
• Isaac Ferrell, b. 1871 Logan Co, WV. Son of Moses Ferrell and Matilda Brewer.
• Isaac Fitzpatrick, b. 1905 WV. Son of William Sanford Fitch and Amanda Meade.
• Isaac Marcum, b. 1844 VA. Married Rebecca Brewer.
• Isaac Newsome, b. 1865 Marrowbone Creek, WV. Son of Harmon Newsome and Lydia Brewer.
• Isaac Harmon Hannah Sr., b. 1845 Floyd Co, KY. Buried: Hannah Cemetery, Big Laurel Branch, Marrowbone Creek

Those named for JACOB:
• Jacob “Jingo Jake” Marcum, b. 1780 Lee Co, VA. Married Rhoda Saddler. Oldest son of Josiah Marcum. Buried: Marcum Cemetery, Tickridge, Wayne Co, WV.
• Jacob Baach, father of Isaiah Lee Baach, b. 1872. Lee Baach was a teacher and buried at Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone Creek
• Jacob Collins, b. 1824 N.C. Married Elizabeth Spaulding. Buried: Anderson Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek
• Jacob Spaulding, b. 1829 KY. Son of Fleming Spaulding and Polly Akers

Those named for JOSIAH:
• Josiah Marcum, b. 1759 Chesterfield Co, VA. First Marcum to settle in Cabell Co, VA, and thus began the prolific family of Marcum. Buried on Jennie’s Creek in a lone grave.
• Josiah Thomas Wiles, b. 1846, Mouth of Wilson, Ashe Co, N.C. Buried: Wiles Cemetery, left fork of Marrowbone

Those named for LABAN:
• Laban T. Stepp, b. 1862 KY. His 3 children, William Harlan, Hazel and Maude are all buried at the Brewer Cemetery, mouth of Marrowbone Creek.

Those named for LAZARUS:
• Lazarus Dameron, b. 1765 VA. He had children both by Jane Jarrell, and wife Nancy Elizabeth Short. He brought both the Jarrell and Dameron families to this portion of the country.
• Lazarus Marcum, b. 1869 WV. Married Polly Williamson. Both are buried Marcum Cemetery, Tickridge
• Lazarus Salmons, b. 1876 KY. Married Nancy Jane Mills. Both buried Salmons-Marcum Cemetery, left fork of Bull Creek
• Lazarus “Lace” V. Waller, b. 1872 Rock Camp, Ohio. Married Melvina Muncy. Both buried Anderson Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek

Those named for MOSES:
• Moses Baisden, b. 1892 Kermit, WV. Married Jane Vanderpool. They are buried at Moses Baisden Cemetery, Antney Branch, Marrowbone Creek
• Moses Block, b. 1896 Mingo Co, WV. Buried: Lillian Brewer Parsley Cemetery, Left for of Marrowbone
• Moses Chaffins, b. 1864 KY. Buried: Murphy Cemetery, East Kermit.
• Moses Ferrell, b. 1829 WV. Minister who married couples on Marrowbone Creek. Buried: Moses Ferrell Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek.
• Moses Marcum, b. 1785 N.C. Son of Josiah Marcum and Eda McDonald.
• Moses Parsley I, b. 1752 Pittsylvania Co, VA. Married Obedience Ryburn.

Those named for SOLOMON:
• Solomon Baisden, married Mary Ann Chafin. Son of John Smith Baisden and Rhoda Branham.
• Solomon James, b. 1873 Martin Co, KY. Son of John James and Rhoda Brewer. Buried at Brewer Cemetery, mouth of Marrowbone Creek
• Solomon Lackey, b. 1840 WV. Married Pricy Lester. Buried: Lackey Cemetery, Marrowbone Ridge
• Solomon S. Marcum, b. 1858 WV. Married Pearlina Pack. Son of Moses Denver Marcum and Susanna Collins.
• Solomon Franklin Fuller, b. 1879 KY. Married Violet Stafford. Possibly buried in Fuller Cemetery on Jennie’s Creek.
• Solomon Xerxes Marcum, b. 1887 Wayne Co, WV. Son of Rev. Joseph Marcum Marcum and Mary Marcum. Buried: Brewer Cemetery, Westwood, Ashland, KY. (I was told by his grandson that he was named for 2 Kings in the Bible.

Then you had some couples/ladies that were adventurous in naming their sons. Maybe they were readers of olden tales and fell in love with the names of their characters:

Those named for CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS:
• John Columbus Chafin, b & d 1944. Buried: Solon Chafin Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• Christopher Columbus Chaffin, b. 1891. Buried: Chaffin Cemetery, Hode, Martin County, KY
• Columbus Evans, b. Feb 6, 1892. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, Forks of Marrowbone
• Christopher Columbus Messer, b. Nov 29, 1913. Buried: Perry Point Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek
• Christopher Columbus Murphy, b. Sep 20, 1884 Pike Co, Ky. Buried: Murphy Cemetery, East Kermit
• Christopher Columbus Preece, b. Sep 24, 1876 Martin Co, KY. Buried: Stepp Cemetery, Kermit.
• Christopher Columbus Spaulding, b. May 10, 1905 Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery

Those named after the Marquis de LAFAYETTE:
• Lafayette Block, b. Nov 4, 1886 WV. Buried Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery.
• Lafayette F. Herald, b. May 6, 1866 Tick Ridge, Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Herald-Corns Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek
• Lafayette Fred Marcum, b. Jan. 1, 1861 Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Anderson Cemetery
• Lafayette F. “Lafie” Crum, b. May 20, 1881 Martin Co, KY. Buried: Murphy Cemetery
• Lafayette F. Salmons, b. Sept 8, 1874 Dunlow, Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Alleghany Memorial Park, VA

There were local dignitaries that had such influence that places were named for them:
ANTHONY WAYNE: (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was an American soldier, officer and statesman of Irish descent. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him promotion to brigadier general and the nickname "Mad Anthony". He later served as the Senior Officer of the Army on the Ohio Country frontier and led the Legion of the United States.

Those named for ANTHONY WAYNE:
• Anthony Wayne Brewer, b. 1831 Logan Co, VA. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, Marrowbone
• Anthony Wayne Brewer, b. March 25, 1861 Logan Co, WV. Buried: Anthony Wayne Brewer Cemetery, Antney Branch, Marrowbone Creek
• Anthony Wayne Brewer (Spaulding), b. March 1, 1876 Marrowbone creek. Buried: Brewer Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• Rev. Anthony Wayne Mead, b. June 11, 1852 Logan Co, VA. Buried: Maher, Mingo Co, WV
• Anthony Wayne Sartin, b. Aug 12, 1884 Logan Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Sartin Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• Anthony Wayne Sturgill Sr., b. Sep 19, 1886 Mingo Co, WV. Buried: Wayne Sturgill Cemetery, Big Laurel Branch, Marrowbone Creek

Those named for LORENZO DOW:
(October 16, 1777 – February 2, 1834) was an eccentric itinerant American evangelist, said to have preached to more people than any other preacher of his era. He became an important figure and a popular writer. His autobiography at one time was the second best-selling book in the United States, exceeded only by the Bible.
• Lorenzo D. Chapman, b. 1860 VA. Buried at Long Branch Cemetery, along the ridge leading up to that road. Son of Jim Burl Chapman and Martha J. Evans.
• Lorenzo Dow Hensley, b. 1848 KY. Married Rebecca Parsley. Son of Abraham Hensley and Jane Ball
• Lorenzo D. Harrison, b. 1848 KY. Married Sarah Ann Hensley, daughter of above Lorenzo Dow Hensley and Rebecca Parsley.
• Lorenzo D. McKenzie, b. 1899 Ft. Gay, WV. Married Alcie Marie Marcum, daughter of John Lincoln Marcum and Anna Spaulding.
• Lorenzo Dow McGranaham, father of John Q. McGranaham b. 1864, mentioned in a previous post

Those named for PYRRHUS (319/318–272 BC) who was a Greek king and statesman of the Hellenistic period. He was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians, of the royal Aeacid house, and later he became king of Epirus. He was one of the strongest opponents of early Rome, and regarded as one of the greatest generals of antiquity. Several of his victorious battles caused him unacceptably heavy losses, from which the term Pyrrhic victory was coined.

• Pyrrhus Bingham Meade, b. June 9, 1869 Wayne Co, WV. Buried Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery
• Pyrrhus Evans, b. Feb 22, 1867 WV. Buried Newsome Cemetery, Big Branch, Mingo Co, WV
• Purrus Fields, b. March 8, 1879 WV. Buried Anderson Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek


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History of the United Nations

The United Nations Charter is the treaty that established the United Nations, it was ratified on 24 October 1945. The following series of events led to the writing of the Charter, and the UN's founding:

Declaration of St. James Palace

After World War II there was a strong feeling that a way had to be found to keep peace among nations. The idea for creating an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace took hold during the war. However, it took many years of planning before the United Nations actually came into existence. Here is a summary of the main events that led up to creation of the UN Charter.

Declaration of St. James Palace (June 1941)

In June 1941, London was the home of nine exiled governments. The British capital had survived twenty-two months of war and in the bomb-marked city, air-raid sirens wailed frequently. Practically all of Europe had fallen to the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and ships on the Atlantic, carrying vital supplies, sank with regularity.

On 12 June 1941, the representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa as well as representatives of the exiled governments from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and the Free French, met in London to sign the Declaration of St. James Palace to pledge their solidarity in fighting aggression until victory against the Axis powers was won.

The Declaration proclaimed that &ldquothe only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and social security."

Atlantic Charter (August 1941)
In August 1941, the Axis powers seemed to have the upper hand. Germany had commenced its attack on the USSR and carefully stage-managed meetings between Hitler and Mussolini, which ended in &ldquoperfect accord,&rdquo sounded grimly foreboding. Although the United States was giving moral and material support to the Allies, it had not yet entered the war. One afternoon, two months after the Declaration of St. James Palace, came the news that President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill were in conference &ldquosomewhere at sea&rdquo&mdashthe same seas on which the desperate Battle of the Atlantic was being fought&mdash and on August 14 the two leaders issued a joint declaration destined to be known in history as the Atlantic Charter.

British battleship HMS Prince of Wales, during the Atlantic Charter meeting

This document was not a treaty between the two powers. Nor was it a final and formal expression of peace aims. It was only an affirmation, as the document declared, &ldquoof certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they based their hopes for a better future for the world.&rdquo

The sixth clause of the Atlantic Charter declared that &ldquoafter the final destruction of Nazi tyranny they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.&rdquo The seventh clause stated that such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas without hindrance, and the eighth clause concluded by emphasizing the need for nations to abandon the use of force: &ldquoThey believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons, must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measures which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments.&rdquo

Other points of the Atlantic Charter also affirmed the basic principles of universal human rights: no territorial changes without the freely-expressed wishes of the peoples concerned the right of every people to choose their own form of government and equal access to raw materials for all nations.

Coming from the two great democratic leaders of the day and implying the full moral support of the United States, the Atlantic Charter created a profound impression on the embattled Allies. It came as a message of hope to the occupied countries, and it held out the promise of a world organization based on universal moral principles. That it had little legal validity did not detract from its value. Support for the principles of the Atlantic Charter and a pledge of cooperation came from a meeting of ten governments in London shortly after Mr. Churchill returned from his ocean rendezvous. This declaration was signed on September 24 by the USSR and the nine exiled governments of occupied Europe: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and by the representatives of General de Gaulle of France.

Declaration by United Nations (1 January 1942)

On New Year&rsquos Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, and T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration. The next day, the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. The governments that signed this declaration pledged to accept the Atlantic Charter and agreed not to negotiate a separate peace with any of the Axis powers.

Declaration by United Nations issued in Washington, DC, on 01 January 1942

Three years later, when preparations were being made for the San Francisco Conference, only those States which had, by March 1945, declared war on Germany and Japan and subscribed to the United Nations Declaration, were invited to take part.

The original twenty-six signatories of the Declaration were:

Amerika Serikat UK Uni Soviet Cina
Australia Yunani Nikaragua Belgium
Guatemala Norway Kanada Haiti
Panama Kosta Rika Honduras Poland
Kuba India Union of South Africa Cekoslowakia
Luksemburg Yugoslavia Republik Dominika Belanda
El Salvador Selandia Baru

Other countries that signed the Declaration later (in order of signature):

27) Mexico 28) Iran 29) Peru 30) Turkey
31) Philippines 32) Colombia 33) Chile 34) Egypt
35) Ethiopia 36) Liberia 37) Paraguay 38) Saudi Arabia
39) Iraq 40) France 41) Venezuela 42) Brazil
43) Ecuador 44) Uruguay 45) Bolivia

The Declaration by United Nations marks the first official use of this term. The Allies used it to refer to their alliance.

Moscow Declaration (October 1943) and Tehran Conference (December 1943)

By 1943 all the principal Allied nations were committed to working together to achieve victory and, thereafter, to create a world in which &ldquomen in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.&rdquo In October 1943, representatives from Great Britain, the United States, China and the Soviet Union met in Moscow. On October 30 these representatives signed the Moscow Declaration [link to MD insert photo of signatures]. The Declaration pledged joint action in dealing with the enemies&rsquo surrender and, in clause 4, proclaimed: &ldquoThat they [the governments of the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and China] recognize the necessity of establishing at the earliest practicable date a general international organization, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states, and open to membership by all such states, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security.&rdquo This clause further develops the idea of an intergovernmental organization that would maintain peace and security in the world that was implicit in the Atlantic Charter.

In December, two months after the Moscow Declaration, Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill, met for the first time in Tehran, the capital of Iran, where they worked out the Allies final strategy for winning the war.

At the end of the conference they declared: &ldquoWe are sure that our concord will win an enduring peace. We recognize fully the supreme responsibility resting upon us and all the United Nations to make a peace which will command the goodwill of the overwhelming mass of the peoples of the world and banish the scourge and terror of war for many generations.&rdquo

Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta Conference (1944-1945)

The fundamental principles underlying the establishment of an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace and security were already laid out in the various declarations that were issued from 1941 onward. The next step required defining the structure of this new organization. A blueprint had to be prepared, and it had to be accepted by many nations. For this purpose, representatives of China, Great Britain, the USSR and the United States met at Dumbarton Oaks, a private mansion in Washington, D. C.

Representatives of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States meeting in the opening session of the Conference on Security Organization for Peace in the Post-War World.

The discussions were completed on October 7, 1944, and a proposal for the structure of the new intergovernmental organization was submitted by the four powers to all the United Nations governments for their study and discussion.

According to the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, the organization, to be known as the United Nations, would consist of four principal bodies: 1) a General Assembly composed of all the members, 2) a Security Council of eleven members, of which five would be permanent and the other six would be chosen by the General Assembly for two year terms, 3) an International Court of Justice, and 4) a Secretariat. An Economic and Social Council, working under the authority of the General Assembly, was also provided for. The essence of the plan was that responsibility for preventing future war should be conferred upon the Security Council. The actual method of voting in the Security Council -- an all-important question -- was left open at Dumbarton Oaks for future discussion.

Another important feature of the Dumbarton Oaks plan was that member states were to place armed forces at the disposal of the Security Council, if needed, to prevent war or suppress acts of aggression. The absence of such force, it was generally agreed, had been a fatal weakness in the older League of Nations. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals were fully discussed throughout the Allied countries. The British Government issued a detailed commentary, and in the United States, the Department of State distributed 1,900,000 copies of the text and arranged for speakers, radio programs and motion picture films to explain the proposals. Comments and constructive criticisms came from several governments, e.g., Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, the Union of South Africa, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States. Extensive press and radio discussion enabled people in Allied countries to judge the merits of the new plan for peace. Much attention was given to the differences between this new plan and the Covenant of the League of Nations.

The important issue regarding the voting procedure in the Security Council that had been left open at Dumbarton Oaks was addressed at Yalta in the Crimea where Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, together with their foreign ministers and chiefs of staff, met in early 1945.

Leaders of the major allied powers of World War II meeting at Yalta in the Russian Crimea on 12 February 1945, to decide on military plans for the final defeat of Germany.

On February 11, 1945, the conference announced that this question had been resolved and called for a Conference of United Nations to be held in San Francisco on 25 April 1945 "to prepare the charter of such an organization, along the lines proposed in the formal conversations of Dumbarton Oaks.&rdquo The invitations were sent out on March 5, 1945, and those invited were told at the same time about the agreement reached at Yalta on the voting procedure in the Security Council. Soon after, in early April, President Roosevelt suddenly died. President Truman decided not to postpone the arrangements that had already been made for this important event which took place on the appointed date.

San Francisco Conference (1945)

Forty-five nations, including the four sponsors, were originally invited to the San Francisco Conference: nations that had declared war on Germany and Japan and had signed the Declaration by United Nations.

Six additional countries were invited: Syria and Lebanon (at the request of France), Argentina, newly-liberated Denmark, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Thus, delegates from 50 nations gathered in San Francisco.

United Nations Charter Conference in San Francisco, California, USA, 26 June 1945

They represented over eighty per cent of the world's population and were determined to set up an organization that would preserve peace and help build a better world. The main objective of the San Francisco conference, officially known as the "United Nations Conference on International Organization" (UNCIO), was to produce a Charter for this new organization that would be acceptable to all the countries.

There were 850 delegates. Along with their advisers and staff together with the conference secretariat, the total number of people attending the conference was 3,500. In addition, there were more than 2,500 media representatives and observers from many organizations. In all, the San Francisco Conference was not only one of the most important in history but, perhaps, the largest international gathering ever to take place.

The conference took place from April 25 to June 26, 1945. The process of writing a Charter for the United Nations took two months. Every part of it had to be voted on and accepted by a two-thirds majority. Here is how the San Francisco Conference accomplished its monumental work: using the Dumbarton Oaks proposals and the Yalta agreement as a starting point, the proposed Charter was divided into four sections. The delegates working on each section formed a "Commission." Commission I dealt with the general purposes and principles of the organization, issues relating to membership, the Secretariat and the subject of amendments to the Charter. Commission II considered the powers and responsibilities of the General Assembly, while Commission III took up the Security Council. Finally, Commission IV worked on a draft for the Statute of the International Court of Justice establishing the judicial organ of the United Nations. This draft had been prepared by a 44-nation Committee of Jurists, which had met in Washington in April 1945.

Given the wide scope of issues each Commission had to work on they were further subdivided into twelve technical committees. Over the course of two months, there were approximately 400 meetings of the different committees at which every line and comma was hammered out.

Photographic reproduction of the original manuscript of the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations, prepared for printing

It was more than words and phrases, of course that had to be decided upon. There were many serious clashes of opinion, divergences of outlook and even a crisis or two, during which some observers feared that the conference might adjourn without an agreement.

There was the question, for example, of the status of "regional organizations&rdquo. Many countries had their own arrangements for regional defense and mutual assistance such as the Inter-American System, for example, and the Arab League. How were such arrangements to be related to the new intergovernmental organization? The conference decided to give them a role in bringing about a peaceful settlement provided that the aims and actions of these groups accorded with the aims and purposes of the United Nations.

One issue that provoked long and heated debate was the right of each permanent member of the Security Council (China, the Soviet Union, United States, United Kingdom, and France) to veto any resolution passed by the Security Council. At one point, the conflict of opinion on this question threatened to break up the conference. The smaller powers feared that when one of the "Big Five" menaced the peace, the Security Council would be powerless to act, while in the event of a clash between two powers not permanent members of the Security Council, the "Big Five" could act arbitrarily. They strove therefore to have the power of the "veto" reduced. But the great powers unanimously insisted on this provision and emphasized that the main responsibility for maintaining world peace would fall most heavily on them. Eventually the smaller powers conceded the point in the interest of setting up the world organization.

This and other controversial issues were resolved only because every nation was determined to set up, if not the perfect international organization, at least the best that could possibly be made.

In the final stages, ten plenary meetings were held so that the full gathering of delegates had an opportunity to discuss and vote on the work drafted by the various committees. On June 25, 1945, the delegates met in the San Francisco Opera House for the last full session of the conference. Lord Halifax presided and put the final draft of the Charter to the meeting. "This issue upon which we are about to vote," he said, "is as important as any we shall ever vote in our lifetime." In view

Delegate from China signing the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, CA

of the world importance of the occasion, he suggested that it would be appropriate to depart from the customary method of voting by a show of hands. Then, as the issue was put, every delegate rose and remained standing. So did everyone present, the staffs, the press and some 3000 visitors, and the hall resounded to a mighty ovation as the Chairman announced that the Charter had been passed unanimously. The next day, in the auditorium of the Veterans' Memorial Hall, the delegates filed up one by one to a huge round table on which lay the two historic volumes, the Charter and the Statute of the International Court of Justice. Behind each delegate stood the other members of the delegation against a colorful semi-circle of the flags of fifty nations. In the dazzling brilliance of powerful spotlights, each delegate affixed his signature. China, the first victim of aggression by an Axis power, was given the honor of signing first.

"The Charter of the United Nations which you have just signed," said President Truman in addressing the final session "is a solid structure upon which we can build a better world. History will honor you for it. Between the victory in Europe and the final victory, in this most destructive of all wars, you have won a victory against war itself. . . . With this Charter the world can begin to look forward to the time when all worthy human beings may be permitted to live decently as free people."

Title page of the United Nations Charter in English

Then the President pointed out that the Charter would work only if the peoples of the world were determined to make it work. "If we fail to use it," he concluded, "we shall betray all those who have died so that we might meet here in freedom and safety to create it. If we seek to use it selfishly &mdash for the advantage of any one nation or any small group of nations &mdash we shall be equally guilty of that betrayal."

The United Nations did not come into existence at the signing of the Charter. In many countries the Charter had to be approved by their congresses or parliaments. It had therefore been provided that the Charter would come into force when the Governments of China, France,Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States and a majority of the other signatory states had ratified it and deposited notification to this effect with the State Department of the United States.

On October 24, 1945, this condition was fulfilled and the United Nations came into existence. Four years of planning and the hope of many years had materialized in an international organization designed to end war and promote peace, justice and better living for all mankind.

Children of UN Secretariat members study the UN Charter in the Delegates' Lounge

At the time of the San Francisco conference, Poland, one of the original signatories of the Declaration, did not have its new government in place and therefore could not attend. On June 28, the new Polish government was announced. By October 15, 1945 Poland had signed the Charter that was written in San Francisco and is therefore considered one of the original Members of the new United Nations.]]>


Tonton videonya: 1945 Lost German Girl (Januari 2022).